The main objective of this study is to provide quantitative and qualitative assessment of the effects of fiscal, non-fiscal charges and levies, as well as their interaction with possible carbon border adjustment mechanisms in order to assess the best portfolio of actions necessary to achieve long-term energy and climate objectives. This will allow to better grasp the impacts of final price signals on energy consumption and energy-related investments, including the possibility of some options leading to “path dependency” or technology/fuel lock-ins. The types of policy targets examined are based on the EU’s 2030 climate and energy targets, National Energy and Climate Plans at country level and the Commission’s long-term strategy for climate neutrality by 2050. The scope of the analysis includes all energy-related sectors that will be covered both in data assessment and in model-based analysis. The sectors covered include notably buildings, transport, industry and agriculture, power generation, energy supply and sectoral integration aspects.